Notes

1. Gareth Knight, Experiences of the Inner Worlds, England, 1975, iv.

2. Richard Cavendish, The Tarot, New York 1975, 9. This is the best work yet to appear on the history of Tarot.

3. Louis Réau, L'Art Chrétien, Paris 1955, v.I, 163.

4. As is discussed in the section on THE HIGH PRIESTESS, Waite disagrees with this idea, saying that the Female Pope actually relates to the cult of Astarte.

5. The Kybalion, Chicago, 1940, 24 ff. The authors of this work, subtitled "A Study of the Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece," are unknown. They have signed themselves only as "Three Initiates."

6. Israel Regardie, The Golden Dawn, Chicago, 1940, v.IV, 176.

7. Eliphas Lévi, Transcendental Magic, London, 1958,3.

8. C.G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, New York, 1968, 101.

9. Israel Regardie, The Middle Pillar, Chicago, 1945; also by Regardie, Foundations of Practical Magic, England, 1979.

10. It is for this reason that, until the present time, all practical works on the occult contained some purposeful errors.

11. Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, New York 1969, 923. This work is modestly subtitled "An Autohagiography."

12. Ellic Howe, The Magicians of the Golden Dawn, London 1972, 1-25.

13. Regardie discusses some of his own experiences, as well as his opinions of the Order of the Golden Dawn in My Rosicrucian Adventure, Minnesota, 1971.

14. Ella Young, Flowering Dusk, New York, 1945, 107.

15. A. E. Waite, Shadows of Life and Thought, London, 1938, 184-5.

16. A. Quiller, Jr. (Crowley), "Dead Weight," The Equinox,vl, No.X, 211.

17. Unpublished lecture, addressed to the "Tomorrow Club," in 1945, by Lady Harris.

18. Harris, ibid.

19. Regardie, Golden Dawn, v.IV,137. "Book T" is also reprinted in An Introduction to the Golden Dawn Tarot by Robert Wang, New York, 1978.

20. Gershom Scholem, Kabbalah, New York, 1974, 5.

21. Rabbi Solomon Ganzfried, Code of Jewish Law, New York, 1963, 51.

22. It is also likely that some scholarly purists consider the diagram an unacceptable later development.

23. S.L. MacGregor Mathers, translation of Knorr von Rosenroth's The Kabbalah Unveiled, London, 1957, 5-6. See also Christian D. Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, London 1925, 84.

24. Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, New York 1977,

25. Scholem, Major Trends, 44.

26. Scholem, Kabbalah,46.

27. Phineas Mordell, The Origin of Letters and Numerals According to the Sepher Yetzirah. New York, 1975, first published in the Jewish Quarterly Review, new series for April 1912, v.ll, and for April 1913, v.lll.

28. See: Sepher Yetzirah, translation by Wynn Westcott including The Thirty Two Paths of Wisdom (1877), New York 1975. Westcott was one of the founders of the Golden Dawn, and it is his translation that is most generally used even today because it is consistent with Golden Dawn principles; Sepher Yetzirah, translation by Isodor Kalisch (1877, first English translation), California, 1954; The Sepher Yetzirah, translation and extensive commentary by Carlo Saures, Boulder 1976. The Saures work is ponderous at best; The Book of Formation (Sepher Yetzirah), translation and commentary by Knut Stenrung (1923), New York, 1970. While Stenrung's translation is generally competent, it is unnecessarily involved and includes a number of nineteenth century misconceptions about the document; Book of Creation, translation of the Sepher Yetzirah by Irving Friedman, New York, 1977. This is one of the best translations yet to appear, and is particularly valuable for its notes on language.

29. Scholem, Kabbalah,23.

30. Scholem, Kabbalah, 23.

31. Scholem, Kabbalah, 23.

32. The Bahir, translation by Aryeh Kaplan, New York, 1979. This first English translation of the text includes the original Hebrew. Kaplan disagrees with Scholem (who also translated this work into a European language), in insisting that this work is of the 1st century B.C.

33. Scholem, Kabbalah, 45-47.

34. Scholem, Kabbalah, 55.

35. Scholem, Kabbalah, 57.

36. Scholem, Kabbalah, 190.

37. The Zohar, translation by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon, New York 1973. While this well-bound edition, published by Soncino Press, is the best-known, the exact same text is also published by Rebecca Bennett Publications, in a less expensive and somewhat reduced size.

38. The Kabbalah Unveiled, Mathers translation. See note 23.

39. Scholem, Kabbalah, 240.

40. Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Chicago, 1964, 12.

41. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 17.

42. Scholem, Kabbalah, 197.

43. Readers interested in Agrippa are referred to Agrippa and the Crisis of Renaissance Thought by Charles G. Nauert, Jr., Illinois, 1965. This excellent doctoral dissertation has become a standard in its field.

44. Frances A. Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age, London, 1979, 21.

45. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 400.

46. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 402.

47. See "A Note on Dr. Dee and his Occult Researches," an appendix to the 1974 Portmeirion facsimile edition of Dee's A True and Faithful Relation of 1659; see also the introduction by Diane di Prima to The Hieroglyphic Monad, New York, 1975, an English translation of the Latin work issued in London in 1564. The preface to the original edition of A True and Faithful Relation was written by Meric Casaubon, whose father had studied the Hermetic fragments. The standard work on John Dee,a highly readable book, is John Dee, by Peter J. French, London, 1972.

48. Frances A. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London 1972, 50.

49. "The Fame and confession of the Fraternity of the Rosie Cross," translation by Thomas Vaughan (1652), A Christian Rosencreutz Anthology, edited by Paul Allen, New York, 1968, 163.

50. Rudolph Steiner, "The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz," Rosencreutz Anthology, 19.

51. Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 50.

52. Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 77.

54. Paul Foster Case, The Book of Tokens, California, 1947, vii.

55. Israel Regardie, Golden Dawn, v. II, 216.

56. Westcott wrote on the Rosicrucians, but he was not much of a scholar. The best work comes from Waite: The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, New York, 1961.

57. The Chaldean Oracles, Edited and revised by Sapere Aude (Westcott's Order name), New Jersey 1978, xiii.

58. See: E.R. Dodds, "New Light on the Chaldean Oracles," Harvard Theological Review, LIV 1961, 263.

59. Refer to books cited in note 9.

60. Paul Case, The Tree of Life, Lesson 4, Figure 4 (no page no.). Page references to Case's study course are generally to the original versions, printed 5%X8%. Today the BOTA distributes the courses in 8%X11, and has added copyright notices.

61. Aleister Crowley, 777, London 1955, xxvii.

62. Ben Shahn, Love and Joy about Letters, New York 1963, 5.

63. This, and all comments on the Sephiroth printed in italics preceding the text in this chapter are from the Golden Dawn "Knowledge Lectures," Regardie, "Concerning the Tree of Life," The Golden Dawn, v. 1,191-98.

64. P.D. Ouspensky, Tertium Organum, New York 1927.

65. Dion Fortune, The Mystical Qabalah, London 1951, 299. Dion Fortune was a member of the Order of the Golden Dawn, but broke with Mrs. Mathers to form her own group, The Society of the Inner light. The Mystical Qabalah remains the standard against which all books on the Hermetic Qabalah are judged. The Society established by Fortune has, however, turned toward Christian Qabalism of a sort that Fortune would undoubtedly have disapproved.

66. Regardie, The Golden Dawn, v. IV. All quotations preceding the Court Cards and the Minor cards are from 'Book T.' See note 19.

67. This Lamen is illustrated in full color in The Secret Temple by Robert Wang, New York 1980.

69. Manly Palmer Hall, An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy, California, 1957, LXXXV.

70. Waite says that his use of the lion's head above the Caduceus of Hermes is a "variant of a sign which is found in a few old examples of this card." Arthur Edward Waite, The Pictorial Key to the Tarot, New York 1959,222.

71. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, LIV.

72. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, LXXXIX. See also T.H. White, The Bestiary, New York 1960, 125.

73. White, The Bestiary, 37-40.

74. Aleister Crowley, The Book of Thoth, New York 1974,196. This book was originally published as part of Crowley's magazine series, The Equinox, v. Ill, No. V.

75. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, CXXXII.

76. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, LXXXIX.

77. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 161.

78. This is an idea with which Regardie disagrees strongly. He views the concept of such "Masters" as having come from the Besant-Leadbeater School, and has stated that this idea "is the way of gross deception." Fortune, however, devotes considerable attention to the masters which she assigns to Chesed. Mystical Qabalah, 166-167.

79. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 213.

80. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 191.

81. Matthew 8:13.

82. Claudius Ptolemy, The Centriloquy, or Hundred Aphorisms, printed as an appendix to Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos,California 1976, 153.

83. Matthew 8:13.

84. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 206.

85. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 215.

86. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 167.

87. Karl Baron Von Reichenbach, Researches on Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, Light, Crystallization and Chemical Attraction in their relations to The Vital Force, New York 1974.

88. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 216.

89. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, LXXXVIII.

90. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, XXXII. The idea that seamen consider the Swan good luck is mentioned by T.H. White, Bestiary, 119.

91. N.G.L. Hammond and H.H. Seullard, Editors, The Oxford Classical Dictonary, Oxford 1978, 472.

92. Quotations here are from the Westcott translation of the Sepher Yetzirah.

93. Scholem, Kabbalah, 23-26.

94. Knight, Experience of the Inner Worlds, 146-161.

95. Aleister Crowley , "The Temple of Solomon the King, "Equinox, v.I, No. V, 72. Our example is taken from Crowley's quotation from Westcott's Introduction to the Study of the Qabalah.

96. Fortune, Mystical Qabalah, 43 ff.

97. Refer also, on each card to "Notes on the Tarot," by Mathers, Golden Dawn, v. 1,141-143 with the "unofficial" discussion of the Tarot Keys, v. IV. ('Book T'), 209. This article, entitled "The Tarot Trumps," is signed by "Q.L.," meaning "Quaero Lucem" the Stella Matutina name taken by Mrs. Felkin. She obviously lacked the profound understanding of the Tarot of either Mathers or Crowley, but these descriptions have some utility. They are, surprisingly, the only discussion of the Golden Dawn Trumps. Mathers confined his explanation to those few cards used in the early rituals.

98. This is reproduced opposite the title page to Scholem's Kabbalah.

99. The "Magical Images of the Sephiroth" are given in 777, Col. CXX, 25.

100. Revelation 4:3. The rainbow as a symbol of God's covenant with Noah appears in Genesis 9:17.

101. This is an obscure panel which in 1904 Crowley discovered in the Boulak Museum, an institution now closed, but the collection of which has been taken over by the Cairo Museum. The Stele, representing Horus, was of special importance to Crowley, and related to his writing of the Book of the Law. This is described in Confessions, 395.

102. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 116.

103. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, CLXI facing.

104. Paul Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, 16, 4.

105. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 113.

106. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 114. It is anyone's guess how he arrived at this date!

108. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 111-112.

109. E.A. Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, v II, 1969, 379-382. This work is important because it was the standard work on Egyptology at the time the three decks related to the Golden Dawn were produced. It has even been suggested that Budge may have been a member of the Golden

Dawn, and had his own secret group within the walls of the British Museum, but this seems unlikely.

111. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 112.

112. Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, v. II, 379-382.

113. These manuscripts have never been published, and are in a private collection.

114. Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, Lesson 16, 1.

115. Manly Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, CXXXII.

116. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 112.

117. "Artemis," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 126-27; see also "Artemis," Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, New York, 1960, 129-32.

119. This idea appears to have originated with the German poet, Conrad of Wûrzburg, who observed that both the lobster and Christ were more beautiful after death. Réau, L'Art Chrétien, v. I, 88.

120. Case, Tarot Fundamentals, 37.

122. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 110.

123. Zohar, Nurho de Manhar translation, San Diego, 1978, 62. The Sperling and Simon translation of this passage reads: "Why is this first gate called 'the fear of the Lord'? Because it is the tree of good and evil. If a man deserves well it is good, and if he deserves ill it is evil. Hence in that place abides fear, which is the gateway to all that is good. 'Good' and 'understanding' are two gates which are as one.' R. Jose said: 'The term "A good understanding" alludes to the Tree of Life which is the knowledge of good without evil.' " Zohar, trans. Sperling and Simon, v. I,

125. Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, Lesson 15, 5.

127. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 109.

128. These ideas are also related to the Midnight Sun which, to the Alchemists, represented the Light coming out of Darkness.

129. "Mars," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 651.

130. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 108.

131. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 109.

133. Aleister Crowley, The Magical Diaries of Aleister Crowley, edited by Stephan Skinner, New York, 1979, 37.

134. "Circumcision," Dictionary of the Bible, edited by James Hastings, New York, 1963, 163.

135. Leviticus, 19.23f.

137. Case, An Introduction to Tarot, Lesson 8, 5.

138. Lévi uses the term "Great Magical Agent" interchangeably with the term "Astral Light." Transcendental Magic, London, 1958, passim.

139. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 876.

140. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 105.

141. A work of particular interest is The Sacred Fire: The Story of Sex in Religion by B.Z. Goldberg, New York 1958.

142. Gareth Knight, A Practical Guide to Qabalistic Symbolism, Toddington, 1965. v. II, 69.

144. Hariette and Homer Curtis, The Voice of Isis, Washington, D.C., 1946, Introduction.

145. Paul Foster Case, The Tarot, New York, 1947, 147.

146. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 102-103.

147. Francis King, Sexuality,Magic and Perversion, New Jersey, 1972, 98. Some Members of the O.T.O. disclaim King's work, particularly his Secret Rituals of the O.T.O., New York, 1973. It is said that he never had access to official O.T.O. documents, and that there are errors in these books. On the other hand, King is a very persuasive and competent scholar, whose work is not lightly dismissed.

Pursuant to the claims of efficacy for these sexual techniques, it will be observed that Crowley apparently never made much money in this way.

148. Case, Tarot Fundamentals, 30.7.

149. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 100, note 1.

150. C.G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, New Jersey, 1977.

151. Gareth Knight, A History of White Magic, London 1978, 3-4.

152. Walter Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, New York, 1947, 74.

153. Saint John of the Cross, Dark Night of the Soul, 119.

154. Refer to note 9.

155. This is mentioned by Cavandish in The Tarot, 106.

156. Waite, Pictorial Key, 116.

157. C.G. Jung, Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, New Jersey, 1977, 21.

158. Saint John of the Cross, Dark Night, 34.

159. Jung, Archetypes, 22.

160. Crowley, Confessions, 452.

161. Crowley, Confessions, 452.

162. Crowley, Confessions, 840.

163. Crowley, Confessions, 249.

164. Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 261.

165. James G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, New York 1958, 413.

166. Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 141-43; Oxford Classical Dictionary, v. IV, 260ff.

167. The Enochian Tablets are described at length in Regardie's Golden Dawn, v. IV, 260ff.

168. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 98.

169. Gareth Knight, Practical Guide, v. II, 116.

170. In the exercise of the Middle Pillar, they are visualized at the right and left shoulders.

171. Case Introduction to Tarot, Lesson 6,6; Tarot Fundamentals, Lesson 25, Iff.

174. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 87.

175. Eliphas Lévi, The Magical Ritual of the Sanctum Regnum, translated and edited by W.Wynn Westcott, New York, 1973, illustration facing page 40.

176. Lévi, Magical Ritual of the Sanctum Regnum, 39-40.

177. "Sphinx," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1009.

178. Unpublished Enochian papers of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Here, again, it is necessary to distinguish the historical reality from that which is entirely valid symbolism. Mathers seems to have invented more than one of the "Egyptian Mysteries," though he has done so using sound metaphysical principles.

179. This idea is also expressed in the Enochian papers.

180. Ezekiel,1.4-28.

181. The Middle Ages defined the reasons for the attribution of the animals: Matthew is the Man (symbol of Air in the Qabalah) because he wrote about the most human qualities of Christ; Mark is the Bull (symbol of Earth) because he wrote about Christ as a beast of burden, carrying the weight of mankind; Luke is the Lion (symbol of Fire) because he described the passionate side of Christ and John is the Eagle (symbol of Water) because he wrote of Christ in a mystical way, soaring above all heads.

182. Goffredo Rosati, "Symbolism and Allegory," Encyclopedia of World Art, New York 1959-68, 815-16.

186. "Typhon, Typhoeus, Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1101; Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 166,195; Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, v. II, 246.

187. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 91.

188. "The Myth of the Going-Forth" as seen by Gnosticism, is discussed by G.R.S. Mead. Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, New York, 1960, 186-87.

189. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 89.

190. Case, Book of Tokens, 83.

191. Zohar, Nuhro de Manhar translation, 303. This passage is not found in the Sperling and Simon translation.

192. St. Jerome was one of the "Fathers of the Church," and the translator of the Vulgate, latin version of the Old and New Testaments. Because of the lion legend, the cat became known as the traditional pet of the scholar. See Réau, L'Art Chrétien, v. Ill, 740-50, also Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, London 1891, V.I, 285-300.

195. Case, Tarot Fundamentals, 20.8.

196. Revelation, 4.5.

198. Waite, Pictorial Key, 96.

199. Ezekiel, Iff.

200. Carl Jung made some extremely interesting observations on the vision of Ezekiel and the Chariot, particularly as related to Egyptian thought, in his essay "The Tetrasomia," Alchemical Studies, New Jersey 1976, 27883.

201. Scholem, Major Trends, 44.

202. Scholem, Major Trends, 46-47.

203. L6vi, Ritual of Transcendental Magic, 338.

204. Case, Book of Tokens, 83.

205. Case, Book of Tokens, 87.

206. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 84-85.

207. The fact that this is the only reference to Teutonic mythology in the deck makes the attribution somewhat problematical. What we are calling "Odin" may, in fact represent an error resulting from the cards having been hand-copied over a period of years. Perhaps this figure had a moon helmet of some sort. Nevertheless, the helmet shown in the Golden Dawn deck, as published, is precisely as it appears in Regardie's hand-painted deck.

208. Case, Tarot Interpretation, 7.

209. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, New York, 1957, 156: "The Sun's subordination to the Moon, until Apollo usurped Helios' place and made an intellectual deity of him, is a remarkable feature of early Greek myth."

210. Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, Lesson 10, 1.

211. Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, Lesson 10, 2.

212. Waite, Pictorial Key to the Tarot, 92.

213. "Andromeda," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 63-64.

214. C.A. Burland, The Arts of the Alchemists, New York, 1967.

215. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 84.

216. "The Vision and the Voice," subtitled "The Cry of the Second Aether which is called ARN" Equinox, v. I, No. 5, supplement, 148. This supplement was published as a separate book, The Vision and the Voice, Dallas, 1972, with extensive notes by Crowley as well as introductory comments by Israel Regardie.

217. "Vision and the Voice," Equinox, 149.

218. Crowley, The Vision and the Voice, note 3, 225.

219. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 80.

220. See: Allen, ed. Christian Rosencreutz Anthology; Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment.

221. Waite, Pictorial Key to the Tarot, 88.

223. Waite, Pictorial Key to the Tarot, 91.

224. Arthur A. Tilley, "The Renaissance in Europe," Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1969, 790, 791.

225. Henry Cornelius Agrippa, The Philosophy of Natural Magic, New Jersey 1974, 33.

226. See forward to work cited above by Leslie Shepherd.

227. Rudolph Koch, The Book of Signs, London 1930, 16.

228. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 79-80.

229. Case, Book of Tokens, 67.

230. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 79.

231. Cavendish, The Tarot, 85.

232. Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels, New York, 1979.

233. G.R.S. Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, New York 1960,307. Mead was one of the modern pioneers in the study of Gnosticism and while his work has been largely superceded by scholars such as Pagels, his insights remain instructive.

234. Forward to work cited above, by Kenneth Rexroth, xviii.

235. Case, Tarot Fundamentals, Lesson 11, 2-3.

236. Jung, Archetypes, passim.

237. In his text, THE EMPEROR remains on the fifteenth Path, but is assigned the letter Tzaddi. THE STAR remains on the twenty-eighth Path, but is Heh. Yet on his Tree of Life diagram, Thoth Tarot, 268, called "The Tarot-General Attribution," THE STAR is actually shown on the fifteenth Path, and THE EMPEROR on the twenty-eighth. It will also be seen that in 777, Columns II and XTV, Crowley uses the standard attributions. One might suggest that Crowley decided late in life that these cards should be transposed, but remained uncertain about the Path placement. The curious discrepancy between the position of the cards in the text of the Thoth Tarot, and on the Tree of Life, suggests that he was at least considering switching the cards as well as the Hebrew letters. The original art of the cards shows THE EMPEROR as IV and Tzaddi, and THE STAR as XVII and Heh.

238. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 78.

239. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 77.

240. Frazer, Golden Bough, 403.

241. Larousse Encylopedia of Mythology, 214.

242. Graves, Greek Myths, 49.

243. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 77.

244. Graves, Greek Myths, 49.

245. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 75.

247. Gareth Knight, Practical Guide, v. II, 145-50.

248. The camel can go long distances without water. This may be taken at one level, to mean a long experience without the reward of contact with the intelligence for which we search on this Path.

249. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 73.

250. Case, Book of Tokens, 37.

251. Graves, Greek Myths, 124, 348. See also "Hecate," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 490, which discusses the confusions surrounding Selene, and points out that no cult of the Moon existed in ancient Greece.

252. Graves, Greek Myths, 85.

253. Graves, ibid.

254. C.G. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, New Jersey, 1976, 323.

255. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 74. The A.A., meaning 'Astrum Argentum,' or "Silver Star," was the Order founded by Crowley, in 1907, on essentially Golden Dawn principles. In 1909 he began to publish The Equinox as the official organ of the A. A. Crowley had apparently joined the O.T.O ("Ordo Templi Orientis") in 1905. This latter, intended as a continuation of the Knights Templar, was founded in 1904. The story of both organizations, and of the Golden Dawn and other such fraternities, is told by Francis King in The Rites of Modern Occult Magic, New York 1971.

256. Case, Tarot Fundamentals, Lesson 8, 10-11.

257. Waite, Pictorial Key, 76.

259. Waite, Pictorial Key,76.

260. Manley Palmer Hall, Encyclopedic Outline, XCV.

261. Cavendish, The Tarot, 71.

262. Waite comments on this card in his Shadows of Life and Thought, 188-89: "It is to be noted that though Venetian, Florentine and French packs differ somewhat clearly, of course betwen narrow limits, Pope Joan has never been termed the Abbess in any, nor can I recall her being so depicted that such a denomination could apply and thus include the design among ecclesiastical estates in Christendom. She comes therefore, as I have intimated, from another region and another order of things... Pope Joan represents not improbably a vestige of the Astarte cultus. I do not pretend to be satisfied with the explanation.. .only one point emerges in all certainty: whatever the card may have stood for originally, it was not the mythical Female Pope, an ascription which arose as a leap in the dark of ignorance on the part of people - whether in France or Italy - who knew the Pope Joan Legend but had never heard of Astarte and much less of Isis."

263. Fabre d'Olivet, The Hebraic Tongue Restored, part II, 25. His original translation reads: "Premièrement, en principe."

267. "Hermes," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 502-3.

270. See: Wang, Secret Temple, passim.

271. Peter de Albano, Heptameron. This treatise is section III of Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, London 1978, 73ff.

272. Francis Barrett, The Magus, London 1801. The 1967 reprint of this work contrains an admirable introduction by Timothy d'Arch Smith.

273. Graves, Greek Myths, 66.

274. Exhibition of Occult and Alchemical Designs for the Cards of the Tarot of the Egyptians, undated, but probably 1944.

275. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 72.

276. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 70.

277. Knight, Practical Guide, v. II, 204.

279. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 53.

281. Case, Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom, Lesson 7, 1.

283. Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, v. I, 78, 145.

284. Goblet D'Alviella, The Migration of Symbols, Wellingborough, 1979. Carl Jung's work, which some may find antiseptic and dispassionate. Yet the inner process of encountering these archetypes was overwhelming as Jung explains in personal terms, in his autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections, New York 1973.

286. Crowley, Book of Thoth,69.

287. Manley Palmer Ha\\,Encyclopedic Outline, XCII.

288. Waite, Pictorial Key, 153.

289. Case, The Tarot, 29ff.

290. Crowley, Book of Thoth, 53-68.

291. Regardie, Golden Dawn, I, 106.

292. These meanings are extracted from several sections of Regardie's Golden Dawn. The language is that of MacGregor Mathers.

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